Gallifreyan's have a Triple Helix DNA, comprising of 69 chromosomes divided into 23 homogeneous triads. Humans, by comparison, only have 46 chromosomes divided among 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.
The extra third strand of Gallifreyan DNA was added by Rassilon to make Regeneration possible, and was created to extend the already amazing Gallifreyan lifespan. This strand stores the regenerative information within a Gallifreyan's Bioplasmic Field that surrounds their bodies. During regeneration this information is conveyed to permanently carried self-replicated biogenic molecules, which permeate a Time Lord body, via a bio-language called Nucleolingua Symbiotica.
Time Lord bodies are filled with self-replicating biogenic molecules. These biogenic molecules work ceaselessly to repair and prune damaged and malformed cells, thus giving a Time Lord amazing recuperative powers. Because of this it takes hundreds of years for a Time Lord to show signs of aging.
The biogenic molecules are similar to symbiotic nuclei and gives Time Lords a symbiotic self-renewing cell structure. Their bodies will dispose of foreign objects and implants fairly quickly. By "retreating" into a healing trance most injuries (such as burns and diseases) can be healed in a day, although repairing broken bones or psychic trauma often takes considerably longer. While in the healing trance, the Gallifreyan will appear dead to most humanoids, but Gallifreyans can tell they're alive. Their body temperature will drop so low that frost sometimes even forms on the body. While extreme pain will automatically induce a healing trance some training is required to enter one voluntarily. They can also selectively regenerate specific organs while in the trance.
Regeneration itself is "triggered" by the release of the hormone Lindos from a Time Lords Limbic Gland (automatically in response to a near-death crisis or when the body wears out), which instructs the biogenic molecules to rebuild the body and restructure the biodata of the subject cell by cell at the molecular level, using the information contained in the Bioplasmic Field. Through Regeneration, the cells of a Time Lord's body are repaired, restored and reorganized. This "genetic reshuffling" will result in a wholly new physical appearance.
To a lesser degree, even the brain cells will similarly be rearranged, causing the brain chemistry and synaptic organization to change. Because of the new balance of hormones, neurotransmitters and neural arrangements in the brain, there is a marked alteration in the Time Lord's collection of emotional, thought and behavioral patterns. So while a regenerated Time Lord will still have the same memories and core moral values as they did pre-Regeneration, there is a moderate to significant change in personality along with the physical change.
At the first Regeneration the biogenic molecules are programmed to build into the new body a number of improvements and backup systems including a second heart and other ancillary systems.
It is very dangerous for Gallifreyans who haven't passed First Maturation (i.e. teenagers) to regenerate. For this reason it is usually forbidden for Gallifreyans to regenerate until they become a Time Lord or are 500 years old.
After 12 regenerations the biogenic molecules begin to decay naturally. Gallifreyans are limited to 13 bodies because their minds and bodies can only withstand the strain of twelve regenerations.
Cillian's regeneration cycleEdit
unlike the time lords who have thirteen lives, Cillian has fifteen lives
- The First Cillian decide to use her boy-regeneration poison to regenerate into the Dark Cillian.
- The Dark Cillian died after the explosive of the Rainbow Factory and passed the ninty six hour journey to order to regenerate.
- The Second Cillian got murdered by Pinkie Pie by an accident after he tells the truth about his enemy.
- the Third Cillian sacrificed his third life to save earth from ending by Max Tyler in the Second Half.
- the Fourth Cillian got shot at the Military base and reborn in his fifth life.
- Fifth Cillian died from rescuing Oswin Oswald by sacrificed his fifth life with a help from Pinkie Pie and Rainbow Dash aka his companions. After they automatically abandoned him.
- Sixth Cillian and his Uncle are put on trial and that Boz Darcy is being forced to go to prison for 6 long months and for Cillian, the Judge of Time decided to send him to Earth in 1807 with his new body that Cillian agrees.
- The Seventh Cillian died from honour and regenerate into his eighth body.
- The Seventh 1/2 Cillian is created between the Seventh and The Eighth Cillians.
- Using all of his energy and died for honour, The Eighth Cillian regenerate into the Ninth.
- Shot by an accident and decide to regenerate into the Tenth.
- Use all of his life energy to save waterloo road from Ralph and the people from tear the school down.
- The Rebellion is created between the Tenth and Eleventh Cillians. He's later merged with the Eleventh Cillian to regenerate into the Twelfth.
- The Eleventh Cillian kissed Lindsey by absorted his vortex energy. He merged with the Rebellion to regenerate into the Twelfth.
- Twelfth Cillian is forced by Twilight Sparkle to regenerate into his thirteenth body.
- The Thirteenth Cillian got shocked by an electric pen and rescued by the Mane 6 and Sunset Shimmer.
- The Marionette is Created by the Disciplinary commettie to kill Cillian.
- The Fourteenth Cillian is granted another Regeneration Cycle and decide to regenerate into his new fifteenth body.